Scientific, technological and application capacity of agricultural stakeholders to exploit pesticidal plants and optimise their use for smallholders was strengthened. Protocols and methodologies were designed and have been used for testing plants against target pest organisms in laboratory and field trials and for the propagation of eight key pesticidal plant species to guarantee supply. Thousands of trees and pesticidal shrubs have been planted in communities in Kenya and Tanzania. In Eastern and Southern Africa, existing partnerships with farmers, farmer unions, community-based organisations, nursery growers, international institutes and non-governmental organisations were consolidated, and commercial ventures established on small and large scale. Commercial opportunities for pesticidal plants, particularly Pyrethrum, have been established with major producers and policy makers in Kenya, and are being further developed in light of their environmental and economic benefits.